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 Korean Grammar

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eun ae
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PostSubject: learning KOREAN LANGUAGE   Sat Aug 30, 2008 8:16 am

its good to open a thread for korean language, for us to learn the language.. hehehe.. (ksi me din, konti p lng ang alam s korean language..hehe, i want to learn din ksi)


So, here are some of the basic korean
expressions you might want to know. they could come in handy when you
wish to make the many korean tourists in our country feel more welcome,
or even ward off a pesky salesperson, an annoying suitor, or simply
tell someone to just back off and mind their own effin' business. hehehe
Laughing


Good morning.
Good afternoon.
Good evening.
Annyong haseyo?

Good-bye.
(to person leaving)
Annyonghi kasayo.

Good-bye.
(to person staying)
Annyonghi kyesayo.

How are you?
Ottoshimnikka?

Fine.
Chalchinaeyo

Hello?
(on the phone)
Yoboseyo?

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 8:17 am

Yes.
Ne.

No.
Aniyo.

Thank you.
Kamsahamnida.

Sorry.
Mianhamnida.

I Love You
Saranghae (yo) - note that the absense of you connotes seriousness.

Always
Eon che na

Sometimes
Kae Keum

Forever
Yang won ee

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 8:32 am

sotja (numbers)


0.
young
1.
hana
2.
dool
3.
set
4.
net
5.
da-seot
6.
yo-seot
7. il
-gop
8.
yo-dol
9.
a-hop
10. yol
11. yol-hana
12. yol-dool
13. yol-set
14. yol-net
15. yol da-seot
16. yol yo-seot
17 yol il-gop
18. yol yo-dol
19. yol a-hop
20. smool
30. so-reun
40. ma-heun
50. shwin
60. ye-soon
70. ee-reun
80. yo-deun
90. a-heun
100. baek

can someone differentiate this from the first one?

Numbers/Counting

one - il

two - i

three - sam

four - sa

five - oh

six - yook

seven - chil

eight - pal

nine - ko

ten - ship

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 8:49 am

dahl (months of the year)

일월
(ilweol) january

이월
(iweol) february

삼월
(samweol) march

사월
(saweol) april

오월
(oweol) may

유월
(yuweol) june

칠월
(chilweol) july

팔월
(palweol) august

구월
(guweol) september

시월
(siweol) october

십일월
(sipilweol) november

십이월
(sipiweol) december

now is.. pal-weol so-reun!! ( i dunno how to say 2008 in korean, huhuhu)


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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 8:50 am

Question Words

When?
Eonjeyo?

Where?
Eodieyo?

How much?
Eolmayeyo? (Ole-mah-yeh-yo)

Who?
Nuguyeyo?

Why?
Waeyo? / Wae?

How?
Eottoek`eyo? (Oh-toe-kay-yo)

What?
Mweoyeyo? (Mwah-yeh-yo)

Which?
Eonugeoshieyo? (Eo-nuu-go-shee-eh-yo)

What's the matter?
Weniriseyo?

What's this?
Igeoshimweoyeyo? (Ee-goh-shee-mwah-yeh-yo)

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 8:55 am

girlfriend
yeojachingu

boyfriend
namjachingu

sweetheart (by/gf)
aein (aeyin)

darling, honey
jagi, yeobo

will you be my girlfriend?
Nae yeojachinguga doeeojullae?

will you be my boyfriend?
Nae namjachinguga doeeojullae?

i'm crazy about you.
Dangsinege banhaetsseumnida.

will you marry me?
Jeorang gyeoronae juseyo.

yung may mga lovers dyan. lol! lol! you have a new term of endearment for them.. Very Happy Very Happy

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 8:59 am

Days of the Week: yo-il

Monday - woryoil

Tuesday - hwayoil

Wednesday - suyoil

Thursday - mokyoil

Friday - keumyoil

Saturday - toyoil

Sunday - iryoil

season= gye-jol

spring= boh
summer= yo-reum
autumn= yo-reum
winter= gyo-eul
happy four seasons



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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 9:02 am

Family



wife : a-nae

husband : nam-pyeon

daughter : ttal

son : adeul

mother : omma (if you are a child), o-mmo-ni (if you are an adult)

father : oppa (if you are a child), o-bo-ji ( if you are an adult)

friend : chin-gu


Colours



red: ppalgang

blue: parang

yellow: norang

white: hayang


black: geomjeong



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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 9:05 am

Korean Slang



Wanna speak Korean with an attitude? Here we suggest some nice phrases which can be useful to chat with young people.


Sarang hae yo = I love you.

Oppa = a term of affection from a younger girl to an older male. It
literally means 'big brother,' but it's commonly used by a younger
female to an older male with whom she has some connection.


Bogo-shipo = Lit: I want to see you, but it translates as 'I miss you.'

bal ddak ko jam i na ja = That means 'you're not enough to drive.
Go home and just take care of your household chores. (a man might say this to a woman)


And to show your wisdom, here you are some nice proverbs.


Kanun mari kooaya onun mari kopta = Say kind words to hear kind words (Nice words for nice words).

Mal han matie chonnyang pito kapnunda = a big debt is repaid with only a few words (Your toungue can make or break you).

Nat marun saeka tuko pam marun chuika tutnunda = Birds can hear the
talk in the daytime, rats can hear the talk at night (Don't speak ill
of others)


Songkoto kutputo turokanda = Even a drill goes in from the tip (You have to start at the bottom to climb a ladder)

Morunun ke yakida = Ignorance is a medicine (Ignorance is a bliss).

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 11:12 am

coffeeprincessmhay wrote:
sotja (numbers)


0.
young
1.
hana
2.
dool
3.
set
4.
net
5.
da-seot
6.
yo-seot
7. il
-gop
8.
yo-dol
9.
a-hop
10. yol
11. yol-hana
12. yol-dool
13. yol-set
14. yol-net
15. yol da-seot
16. yol yo-seot
17 yol il-gop
18. yol yo-dol
19. yol a-hop
20. smool
30. so-reun
40. ma-heun
50. shwin
60. ye-soon
70. ee-reun
80. yo-deun
90. a-heun
100. baek

can someone differentiate this from the first one?

Numbers/Counting

one - il

two - i

three - sam

four - sa

five - oh

six - yook

seven - chil

eight - pal

nine - ko

ten - ship


the numbers used above is for counting, and then the other one, i mean the numbers there are used for money. someone told me that those numbers..some of them rather are borrowed from the chinese words^^
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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 11:17 am

okay ill contribute something here^^
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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 12:14 pm

ihaehashutseumnikka?--do u understand?
jeulgeoun yeohaeng teseyo--have a good trip
eotteoke jinaesimnikka?--how are you?
kajokdeureun modu annyeonghasimnikka?--how's your family?
haengbokhamnida--i'm happy
seulpeumnida--i'm sad
ihaemothaeyo--i don't understand
ihaehamnida--i understand
motpwayo--i don't see it
toumi piryohaeyo--i need help
... kaneun kil mannayo?--is this the way?
je ireumeun ... imnida.--my name is...
ireumi mueosimnikka?--what is ur name?
eodiseo oshutseumnikka?--where are you from?
keugeoseun eodie isseumnikka?-- where is it?
eodie..?---where is ...?where are...?
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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 12:14 pm

VERBS
keotta~ to walk
kongbuhada~ to learn
tallida~ to run
topta~ to help
teutta~ to listen
masida~ to drink
mannada~ to meet
marhada~ to talk
Meokta~ to eat
muuetingarl alda~ to know something
pagmunhada~ to visit
poda~ to see
pureuda~ to call
sada~ to buy
sayonghada~ to use
seda~ to count
suyounghada~ to swim
sseuda~ to write
ssita~ to wash
anta~ to sit
eoteoke alda~ to know how
yeohaenghada~ to travel
yorihada~ to cook
wonhada~ to want
ida~ to be
irhada~ to work
ikta~ to read
itta~ to have
jada~ to sleep
johada~ to like
piryohada~ to need
hada~ to do
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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 12:16 pm

geomjeong saek> black
parangsaek>blue
kalsaek >brown
hwesaek>gray
noksak> green
jyhwangsaek>orange
punhongsaek>pink
porasaek> purple
ppalgangsaek>red
norangsaek>yellow
hinsaek>white
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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sat Aug 30, 2008 12:18 pm

apple - sagwa
pear - bae
strawberry -ttalgi
grapes 포- podo
orange -gyul
watermelon - subak
peach - boksunga
apricot - salgu
plum - jadu
persimmon - gam
cherry - aengdu


Other
potato - samja
sweet potato - soguma
cucumber - oi
carrot - danggeun
mushroom - beoseot
chestnut - bam
radish -mu
garlic - maneul
ginger - saenggang
onion -yangpa
pumpkin - hobak
sesame leaf - kkaesip
buckwheat - memil
wheat - mil
barley - bori
Indian millet - susu
Chinese cabbage - baechu
lettuce -sangchu
bean - kong
red-bean - pat
walnut -hodu
stone-leek - pa
tomato - tomato
foxtail - gangajipul
kind of barberry shrub - kkaengkkaengipul
nettle -sswaegipul
wild thistle- eonggeongkwi
platanus -platanus
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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sun Aug 31, 2008 12:52 am

here are some sentences i've learned and hope that you can you them all!!

>yes, please wait
=ne, chogum man kidari ship shio

>please turn right
=orun jukuro ship shio

>please turn left
=owen/huen jukuro ship shio

>what's your name?
=tangsinul irumun mous simnikka?

>my name is....,
=na ui irumun.... imnida

>how old are you?
=myot sal imnikka?

>where do you live?
=myot ul sasimnikka?

>what are you doing?
=myut ul imnikka?

>excuse me
=shillye hamnida

>can i ask a question?
=cham kan malsum cho muro poke isnumnikka?

>where are we going?
=odiro kalkkayo?

>long time no see
=orae kan man imnida

>i miss you/ i want to see you
=mugo ship ta

>no, i can't understand
=aniyo, ihae myot imnida

>yes, i understand
=ne, ihae imnida

>what's you problem?
=mosu iri sim nikka?

>are we going to school?
=hakkyo eh na kalkkayo?

>is this you first time here in......,?
=choum uro eh....., osyosumnikka??

>i love you
=sarang hae yo

>it's expensive!!
=pisamnida!!

>no, it's not expensive
=un pisamnida

>i'll take this (in the market place)
=igot suget sumnida

>is there any discount?
=harin hal so'up sumnida?
















-=medyo kulang at medyo ewan

-=kasi ala poh sa aking 'yung book ko

-=kaya pag tyagaan nyu nalang poH!!

-=sana may natutunan poh kayu!! lol!

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sun Aug 31, 2008 5:42 am

[quote="coffeeprincessbellé"]
coffeeprincessmhay wrote:



the numbers used above is for counting, and then the other one, i mean the numbers there are used for money. someone told me that those numbers..some of them rather are borrowed from the chinese words^^

thanks for the info!!, it helps me alot!, is it more appropriate to use "kahmsahanida?, or "komapsumnida"?

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Sun Aug 31, 2008 5:59 pm

oh cheonmaneyo! (your welcome!) heheh.. well its much better to use komapsumnida than kamsahmnida (my korean friend told me that) because everytime i watch korean novels they usually use "komapsumnida" or "komawo" or "komawoyo" they just added "yo" for respect^^ and in kamsahmnida "imnida" is added at the last because "imnida" is used for statement or it means statement you can also use kamsah because it also mean "thank you" hehe, well its up to you if you want to use "komapsumnida" or "kamsahmnida" hehe^^, but for me i use "komapsumnida" more often! lol! haha Very Happy
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PostSubject: Korean Alphabet   Tue Sep 02, 2008 8:27 pm

Introduction



The Korean alphabet, known as Hangeul
(한글, "great script"), is considered one of the most efficient and
logical writing systems in the world. While most modern alphabets
evolved from earlier hieroglyphics or ideographs, 한글 (Hangeul) was created specifically to make it easy to read and write the Korean language.

Although the characters of 한글 (Hangeul) may appear to be ideograms like the traditional Hanja (한자, 漢字), they really form an alphabet. Each block character represents one syllable and is made up of individual jamo (자모), much like the letters in the English alphabet. 한글 (Hangeul) is easy to learn because it has only 24 basic jamo.

Consonants


Below are the consonants (자음) of the Korean alphabet. You don't need to
memorize them yet because individual lessons will cover each letter in
detail. For now, just be aware that the Korean alphabet has ten basic
consonants and nine variations on them:


Consonant jamo

Basic
예사소리


Letter (jamo)











Romanization
Pronunciation


g or k
g or k


n
n


d or t
d or t


rl
ɾl
or
or

m
m


b or p
b or p


s
s


- or ng
silent or ŋ

j or ch
ʥʨ

or

h
h


Aspirated
거센소리


Letter (jamo)











Romanization
Pronunciation


k



t




p




ch
ʨʰ



Tense
된소리


Letter (jamo)











Romanization
Pronunciation


ggkk
or



ddtt
or




bbpp
or


ss



jj
ʨ͈



Notice that some consonants have two different
pronunciations (e.g. ㄱ pronounced as /g/ or /k/ depending on context).
Also, some are "aspirated" and some are "tense". Those details and more
are explained in Essential Pronounciation Rules.




*source
http://www.italki.com/knowledge/Learn-korean-english.htm

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Last edited by coffeeprincessanne on Tue Sep 02, 2008 8:33 pm; edited 4 times in total
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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Tue Sep 02, 2008 8:27 pm

Vowels


6 Korean regular vowels: diphtongs in red


There are 21 letters used to represent vowels: six
basic vowels, nine combinations of those six basic vowels (which
originally were all pronounced as diphthongs), and six vowels with an
extra short dash representing the initial y j sound.



Vowel jamo

Letter (jamo)











Romanization
Pronunciation


a
a


ya
ja


eo
ʌ


yeo


o
o


yo
jo


u
u


yu
ju


eu
ɯ


i
i


Letter (jamo)








Romanization
Pronunciation


ae
ɛ


yae


e
e


ye
je


oe
ø" title="wø">wø


wi
wi


ui
ɰi


Letter (jamo)



Romanization
Pronunciation


wa
wa


wo


Letter (jamo)



Romanization
Pronunciation


wae


we
we

[b]

Consonant jamo
Basic
예사소리
Letter (jamo) ㄱ ㄴ ㄷ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅅ ㅇ
ㅈ ㅎ
Romanization
Pronunciation
g or k
g or k
n
n
d or t
d or t
r or l
ɾ or l
m
mb or p
s
s
- or ng
silent or ŋ
j or ch
ʥ or ʨ
h
h

Aspirated
거센소리
Letter (jamo) ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅊ
Romanizat

b or p




*source
http://www.italki.com/knowledge/Learn-korean-english.htm

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PostSubject: Korean Grammar   Tue Sep 02, 2008 8:34 pm

Grammar: 문법



  • VS + ㅂ니까 - Question, vs ends in vowel (e.g.: 가 -> 갑니까)
  • VS + 습니까 - Question, vs ends in consonant (e.g.: 먹 -> 먹습니까)
  • VS + ㅂ니다 - Statement vs ends in vowel (e.g.: 가 -> 갑니다)
  • VS + 습니다 - Statement vs ends in consonant (e.g.: 먹 -> 먹습니다)
  • N + 은/는 - Topic particle
  • N + 에 - Location particle (to that thing/place)
  • N + 에게 - Dative particle (to that person)

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Tue Sep 02, 2008 8:35 pm

Korean Personal pronouns






Home > Knowledge > Learn Korean using English > wiki





Korean/Navigation panel|Grammar
Korean pronouns pose some difficulty to speakers of English due
to their complexity. The Korean language makes extensive use of speech
levels and honorifics in its grammar, and Korean pronouns also change
depending on the social distinction between the speaker and the person
or persons spoken to.

In general, Korean speakers avoid using
second person singular pronoun, especially when using honorific forms.
This is done in several ways:


  • Omit the subject if it can be implied by the context. Most English sentences need subjects, but not Korean sentences do not.
  • Use the appropriate title. For example, talking to a teacher or certain other professionals (e.g. a manager), one may use 선생님 (seonsaengnim, "teacher").
  • Use kinship terms, even to address someone who is not family:

    • 언니 (eonni, "older sister"), used by females to address a slightly elder female
    • 누나 (nuna, "older sister"), used by males to address a slightly elder female
    • 오빠 (oppa, "older brother"), used by females to address a slightly elder male
    • (hyeong, "older brother"), used by males to address a slightly elder male
    • 아줌마 (ajumma, "middle aged woman")
    • 아저씨 (ajeoshi, "middle aged man")
    • 할머니 (halmeoni, "grandmother")
    • 할아버지 (harabeoji, "grandfather")

  • Use the plural 여러분 (yeoreobun, "ladies and gentlemen") where applicable.
  • If talking to someone younger than the speaker, one may use the person's name.

Pronouns


singular plural first person second person third person third person feminine
polite plain polite plain
(jeo) na) (저희 (jeoheui) 우리 (uri)
당신dangshin) (neo) (당신들dangshindeul) (너희들neoheuideul) (
(geu) 그들 (geudeul)
그녀 (geunyeo) 그녀들 (geunyeodeul)

The
first and second person pronouns have both an informal and a polite
(humble/honorific) form. The polite form is used when speaking to
someone older or of high social status. 당신 (the plain second person
singular pronoun) literally means "friend", but is only used as a form
of address and is more polite than 친구 (chingu), the usual word
for "friend". 당신 is also sometimes used as the Korean equivalent of
"dear" as a form of address. Also, whereas uses of other humble forms
are straightforward, 당신 must be used only in specific social contexts,
such as between two married couples. In that way it can be used in an
ironic sense when used between strangers.

Of the third person
pronouns, the feminine forms sound awkward and are mostly used when
translating texts from other languages. 그 was originally used for both
genders and still is in conversa
tion.





*source
http://www.italki.com/knowledge/wiki-Korean%20Personal%20pronouns.htm

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Tue Sep 02, 2008 8:39 pm

Korean Demonstrative pronouns






Home > Knowledge > Learn Korean using English > wiki





Demonstrative object pronouns



Korean has three demonstrative pronouns for objects:


  • 이것 (this, ee-guht) is used when the object is nearby the speaker.
  • 그것 (that, geu-guht) is used when the object is near the listener. It is also used when the speaker already mentioned the object.
  • 저것 (that over there, juh-guht) is used when the object is far from the speaker and the listener.

Examples:


  • 이것은 이상하내: This is strange.
  • 그것은 이상하내: That is strange.
  • 저것은 이상하내: That over there is strange.




When (the topic marker) follows those pronouns, they are often contracted as follows:


When (the subject marker) follows those pronouns, they are often contracted as follows:

Demonstrative personal pronouns


Korean has three demonstrative pronouns for people.


  • 이분 is used when the person is nearby the speaker.
  • 그분 is used when the person is near the listener.
  • 저분 is used when the person is far from the speaker and the listener.
Demonstrative determiners


Also , , and can be used in front of nouns:


  • 식사가 맛있어요.
  • : This dish is delicious.
  • 연필을 이용해요?
  • : Are you using that pencil?
  • 식당에 갑시다.
  • : Lets go to that restaurant.



*source
http://www.italki.com/knowledge/wiki-Korean%20Demonstrative%20pronouns.htm

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Fri Sep 05, 2008 3:17 am

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hope it helps... Very Happy Very Happy

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PostSubject: Re: Korean Grammar   Fri Sep 05, 2008 5:16 am

Basic Words
Hello : annyong hashimnigga (formal)
Good bye: (to someone leaving) annyonghi kaseyo
Good bye: (to someone staying) annyonghi kyeseyo
Please : put’ak hamnida
Thank you : kamsa hamnida
Days of the week
Monday : wol-yo-il
Tuesday : hwa-yo-il
Wednesday : su-yo-il
Thursday : mok-yo-il
Friday : keum-yo-il
Saturday : to-yo-il
Sunday : il-yo-il
Months
January : il-wol
February : i-wol
March : sam-wol
April : sa-wol
May : o-wol
June : yuk-wol
July : chil-wol
August : pal-wol
September : gu-wol
October : sip-wol
November : sip-il-wol
December : sip-i-wol
Directions
left : wen-chok
right : o-reun-chok
straight : ddok-ba-ro
up : wi-ro
down : a-re-ro
far : meon
near : ga-ka-un
long : gin
short : chal-beun
map : ji-do
tourist information center(office) : gwan-gang an-ne-so
here : yyog-ee
there : chog-ee
Family
wife : a-nae
husband : nam-pyeon
daughter : ttal
son : adeul
mother : omma (if you are a child), o-mmo-ni (if you are an adult)
father : oppa (if you are a child), o-bo-ji ( if you are an adult)
friend : chin-gu
Colours
red: ppalgang
blue: parang
yellow: norang
white: hayang
black: geomjeong
Transport
Airport : konghang
Express bus terminal : kosok bosu t’ominol
Bus stop : bosu chongnyujang
Ferry crossing: naru
Ferry pier: pudu
Underground station: chihach’ol yok
Train station: kich’a yok
Bus: bosu
Taxi: t’aekshi
Train: kich’a
One-way: p’yondo
Return: wangbok
Passport: yogwan
In Town
Post Office: uch’eguk
Stamp: u’p’uo
Public phone: gongjung chonhwa
Telephone card: chonhwa k’adu
Bank: unhaeng
Pharmacy: yakkuk
Toilet: hwajangshil
Hospital: pyongwon
Accommodation
Hotel: hot’el
Guesthouse: yogwan
Single room: shinggul
Double room: tobul lum
With private bath: yokshil innun bang
Towel: sugon
Eating
Noodles: myon/kuksu
Rice: bap
Fish: saengson
Beef: sogogi
Chicken: takkogi
Pork: taejigogi
Beans: k’yong
Black pepper: huch’u
Salt: sogum
Butter: pot’o
Ketchup: k’ech’op
Sugar: solt’ang
Water (cold): ch’an mul
Tea: ch’a
Coffee: kop’i
Juice: chyusu
Milk: uyu
Beer: maekchu
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